Magnesium Supplementation

Magnesium Supplementation

What is magnesium?

Magnesium is a mineral found abundantly in the body and is the most frequently found metal ion enzymatic cofactor – molecules that are required for the proper functioning of enzymes in biochemical reactions – in over 600 reactions in the human body[i]. These enzymatic reactions range from involvement in DNA and protein synthesis, to energy metabolism, to muscle and nerve function, to glucose control1. Additionally, magnesium plays an important role in the functioning of the cardiovascular system, in bone metabolism, and in neurological functioning[ii]. Magnesium is found in a variety of foods, including leafy green vegetables, seeds and nuts, legumes, dark chocolate, and whole grains. Yet, research suggests that many populations, including those in developed nations such as the United States, Australia, Germany, France, Taiwan, and Japan do not consume adequate amounts of magnesium[iii],[iv]. Habitually low intakes of magnesium and long-term subclinical deficiency may induce changes in many biochemical pathways that are involved in the proper functioning of many organ systems.

Benefits of magnesium

The scientific literature on the benefits of magnesium supplementation is increasing[v]. The main, potential benefits include:

  1. May have anti-inflammatory effects in the body, which can contribute to its ability to improve inflammation.

Inflammation is a vital process that protects our bodies from invading pathogens, substances, or injury. However, when chronic inflammation occurs, there can be detrimental effects on our health over time. Chronic inflammation contributes to a variety of conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, among others[vi]. The scientific literature to date demonstrates that magnesium deficiency is a contributor to chronic, low grade inflammation, although the exact mechanisms and pathways involved are still being investigated[vii].

In a recent 2022 review, researchers synthesised evidence from 17 trials investigating the effects of magnesium supplementation versus a placebo on biomarkers of inflammation[viii]. Biomarkers are substances in the body that can indicate the presence of inflammation and can be detected by diagnostic testing such as blood tests. These trials, comprising of  more than 800 participants in total, involved magnesium supplementation ranging from 250 mg – 400 mg per day, with a median follow up period of 12 weeks. Overall, magnesium supplementation significantly improved biomarkers of inflammation, including decreased C-reactive protein, and increased nitric oxide levels9.

  1. May reduce blood pressure.

Magnesium plays a role in regulating blood pressure by helping blood vessels relax. Low levels of magnesium in the body can lead to blood vessel constriction and increased resistance to blood flow, which can raise blood pressure. High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. In a recent review of 49 clinical trials,  authors concluded that magnesium supplementation of more than 240 mg per day lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients taking medication, whilst more than 600 mg/day lowers blood pressure in untreated hypertensives[ix]. It is important to note, however, that further research is needed to validate the efficacy of magnesium supplementation as an adjunct treatment in lowering blood pressure.

  1. May improve blood sugar control.

Magnesium plays a role in the pathways involved in the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels and blood sugar control and may reduce diabetes risk. These pathways may include involvement in the promotion of insulin secretion – a hormone that regulates blood sugar by facilitating uptake from the blood stream into cells, in inflammatory parameters, and in increased glucose utilisation in cells[x],[xi],13. Multiple studies suggest that individuals with lower intakes of magnesium are at higher risk of developing type II diabetes[xii],[xiii],[xiv]. In a large review involving more than 600,000 participants, higher intakes of magnesium were associated with a significantly lower incidence of developing diabetes[xv].

In a 2021 review, researchers analysed the results of 25 double-blind, randomised controlled trials, and found that compared to a placebo, magnesium supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity in individuals at risk of developing diabetes[xvi], although more studies are needed to validate these findings.

  1. May improve bone health

Over 60% of the total magnesium in our bodies are found in bone1, and there is a direct cause and effect relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the maintenance of healthy bone[xvii]. Magnesium is involved in bone turnover, which is the continuous process of bone formation and bone resorption, by stimulating osteoblast activity (cells that are responsible for building bone tissue) and by regulating osteoclasts, cells responsible for bone resorption, to prevent excessive bone breakdown. Magnesium is also involved in regulating calcium levels in the bone, which is essential for maintaining bone health. It does this by regulating both parathyroid hormone as well as the active form of vitamin D – both of which are major regulators of calcium homeostasis[xviii]. In a recent systematic review, researchers found that in 12 studies, higher habitual intakes of magnesium were associated with higher bone density in the hip and femoral neck[xix].

In another recent review of clinical trials, researchers found potential benefits of magnesium supplementation on bone health in different populations. For example, in one randomised controlled study carried out on post-menopausal women with osteoporosis, a disease characterised by bone loss, 30 days of magnesium supplementation was associated with beneficial effects on bone turnover biomarkers, including increased markers of bone formation and decreased markers of bone resorption[xx]. In another study conducted on 50 teenage girls, one year of 300 mg of magnesium supplementation was associated with significantly increased bone mineral content in the hip and lumbar spine, compared to a placebo[xxi]. Larger, well designed trials are needed to fully understand the role of magnesium supplementation in promoting bone health.

  1. May improve migraines

Low levels of magnesium have been associated with individuals who suffer from migraines[xxii]. Magnesium supplementation is sometimes used as an adjunct therapy for the treatment and prevention of migraine headaches. Several randomised, double-blind controlled trials have found magnesium supplementation to be protective against migraines[xxiii]. However, because doses of magnesium used to treat migraines are relatively high and above the upper limit, (up to 600 mg per day), treatment should always be supervised by a healthcare professional.

  1. May improve PMS symptoms

Some research has shown that magnesium supplementation may ease PMS symptoms, including bloating, water retention, breast pain, and abdominal pain. In one randomised, placebo controlled study, researchers found that 250 mg of magnesium supplementation paired with a vitamin B6 supplement significantly reduced PMS symptoms in participants, including water retention, breast pain,  lower abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, and insomnia[xxiv].

  1. May improve sleep

Some studies suggest that magnesium supplementation is associated with better sleep. One study carried out on older adults found that compared to a placebo, magnesium supplementation improved objective and subjective measures of insomnia, including higher levels of melatonin and renin release (hormones that help regulate sleep), lower levels of cortisol (a stress biomarker), and increases in sleep time[xxv]. In another study, researchers sought to determine whether a combined  melatonin, magnesium, and zinc supplement improves insomnia compared to a placebo and found that supplementation improved sleep quality significantly, including in total sleep time, quality of sleep, and ease of getting to sleep[xxvi]. More high quality research with large sample sizes are needed to further clarify the relationship between magnesium supplementation and sleep quality.

Magnesium supplementation: forms of magnesium

Magnesium is available as a supplement, and in general, supplementation is considered safe. Magnesium is available in several forms:

  • Magnesium oxide
  • Magnesium citrate
  • Magnesium chloride
  • Magnesium glycinate

Some forms of magnesium are more bioavailable (absorbable) than others. Additionally, magnesium supplementation, especially in higher doses, may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and have a laxative effect[xxvii]. Magnesium glycinate has been shown to cause less gastrointestinal side effects and is highly bioavailable[xxviii]. Other forms of magnesium, such as magnesium oxide, are less bioavailable and may have a higher risk of side effects[xxix].

How much should I take, and what are the risks of magnesium supplementation?

Many people consume less magnesium than they should from their diets. The European Food Safety Authority has defined daily adequate intake as:

  • 350 mg for men
  • 300 mg for women
  • 300 mg for boys aged 10-18 years
  • 250 mg for girls aged 10-18 years[xxx]

If you do not consume enough magnesium in your diet, then a magnesium supplement may be an effective way to increase your magnesium intake. The maximum dosage of magnesium supplementation is up to 350 mg per day.. If you have a magnesium deficiency, a healthcare professional may prescribe higher doses. Very high doses of magnesium can cause toxicity. Some types of medications such as antibiotics, diuretics, proton pump inhibitors and biphosphates can interact with magnesium supplements, so individuals on medications should discuss their magnesium intakes with their health providers. Always speak to a healthcare professional before starting or stopping any supplement.

To sum up…

Magnesium is an essential mineral that is crucial for many functions in the human body. Adequate intake may reduce our risk of disease and help us function optimally. If we do not consume enough magnesium from food sources, taking a supplement can help us meet our daily needs effectively. Choose a supplement that is readily absorbable such as magnesium glycinate, and do not consume more than recommended dosages without speaking to a healthcare professional.

[i] de Baaij, J. H., Hoenderop, J. G., & Bindels, R. J. (2015). Magnesium in man: Implications for health and disease. Physiological Reviews, 95(1), 1–46. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00012.2014

[ii] Fiorentini, D., Cappadone, C., Farruggia, G., & Prata, C. (2021). Magnesium: Biochemistry, nutrition, detection, and social impact of diseases linked to its deficiency. Nutrients, 13(4), 1136. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041136

[iii]DiNicolantonio, J. J., O’Keefe, J. H., & Wilson, W. (2018). Subclinical magnesium deficiency: A principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis. Open Heart, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2017-000668

[iv] Costello, R. B., Elin, R. J., Rosanoff, A., Wallace, T. C., Guerrero-Romero, F., Hruby, A., Lutsey, P. L., Nielsen, F. H., Rodriguez-Moran, M., Song, Y., & Van Horn, L. V. (2016). Perspective: The case for an evidence-based reference interval for serum magnesium: The time has come. Advances in Nutrition, 7(6), 977–993. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.116.012765

[vi] van den Brink, W., van Bilsen, J., Salic, K., Hoevenaars, F. P., Verschuren, L., Kleemann, R., Bouwman, J., Ronnett, G. V., van Ommen, B., & Wopereis, S. (2019). Current and future nutritional strategies to modulate inflammatory dynamics in metabolic disorders. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00129

[vii] Nielsen, F. H. (2018). Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: Current perspectives. Journal of Inflammation Research, Volume 11, 25–34. https://doi.org/10.2147/jir.s136742

[viii] Veronese, N., Pizzol, D., Smith, L., Dominguez, L. J., & Barbagallo, M. (2022). Effect of magnesium supplementation on inflammatory parameters: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 14(3), 679. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030679

[ix] Rosanoff, A., Costello, R. B., & Johnson, G. H. (2021). Effectively prescribing oral magnesium therapy for hypertension: A categorized systematic review of 49 clinical trials. Nutrients, 13(1), 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010195

[x] Günther, T. (2010). The biochemical function of mg2+ in insulin secretion, insulin signal transduction and insulin resistance. Magnesium Research, 23(1), 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1684/mrh.2009.0195

[xi] Mooren, F. C. (2015). Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 17(9), 813–823. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12492

[xii] Veronese, N., Demurtas, J., Pesolillo, G., Celotto, S., Barnini, T., Calusi, G., Caruso, M. G., Notarnicola, M., Reddavide, R., Stubbs, B., Solmi, M., Maggi, S., Vaona, A., Firth, J., Smith, L., Koyanagi, A., Dominguez, L., & Barbagallo, M. (2019). Magnesium and health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational and intervention studies. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(1), 263–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01905-w

[xiii] McClure, S. T., Schlechter, H., Oh, S., White, K., Wu, B., Pilla, S. J., Maruthur, N. M., Yeh, H.-C., Miller, E. R., & Appel, L. J. (2020). Dietary intake of adults with and without diabetes: Results from NHANES 2013–2016. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001681

[xiv] Zhao, B., Deng, H., Li, B., Chen, L., Zou, F., Hu, L., Wei, Y., & Zhang, W. (2019). Association of magnesium consumption with type 2 diabetes and glucose metabolism: A systematic review and pooled study with trial sequential analysis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 36(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3243

[xv] Fang, X., Han, H., Li, M., Liang, C., Fan, Z., Aaseth, J., He, J., Montgomery, S., & Cao, Y. (2016). Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutrients, 8(11), 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110739

[xvi] Veronese, N., Dominguez, L. J., Pizzol, D., Demurtas, J., Smith, L., & Barbagallo, M. (2021). Oral magnesium supplementation for treating glucose metabolism parameters in people with or at risk of diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 13(11), 4074. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114074

[xvii] Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to magnesium and electrolyte balance (ID 238), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 240, 247, 248), neurotransmission and muscle contraction including heart muscle (ID 241, 242), cell division (I. (2009). EFSA Journal, 7(10), 1216. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1216

[xviii] Castiglioni, S., Cazzaniga, A., Albisetti, W., & Maier, J. (2013). Magnesium and osteoporosis: Current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients, 5(8), 3022–3033. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5083022

[xix] Groenendijk, I., van Delft, M., Versloot, P., van Loon, L. J. C., & de Groot, L. C. P. G. M. (2022). Impact of magnesium on bone health in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bone, 154, 116233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116233

[xx] Aydın, H., Deyneli, O., Yavuz, D., Gözü, H., Mutlu, N., Kaygusuz, I., & Akalın, S. (2009). Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biological Trace Element Research, 133(2), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-009-8416-8

[xxi] Rogol, A. D. (2007). A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in Healthy Girls. Yearbook of Medicine, 2007, 554–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0084-3873(08)70319-5

[xxii] Maier, J. A., Pickering, G., Giacomoni, E., Cazzaniga, A., & Pellegrino, P. (2020). Headaches and magnesium: Mechanisms, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and potential advantage of magnesium pidolate. Nutrients, 12(9), 2660. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092660

[xxiii] Dolati, S., Rikhtegar, R., Mehdizadeh, A., & Yousefi, M. (2019). The role of magnesium in pathophysiology and migraine treatment. Biological Trace Element Research, 196(2), 375–383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01931-z

[xxiv] Fathizadeh, N., Ebrahimi, E., Valiani, M., Tavakoli, N., & Hojat Yar, M. (2010). Evaluating the effect of magnesium and magnesium plus vitamin B6 supplement on the severity of premenstrual syndrome. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. , 15, 401–405.

[xxv] Abbasi, B., Kimiagar, M., Kimiagar, K., & Sadeghniiat, K. (2012). The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci., 17, 1161–1161.

[xxvi] Jones, S. F. (2012a). The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Yearbook of Pulmonary Disease, 2012, 207–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypdi.2012.01.037

[xxvii] Gröber, U., Schmidt, J., & Kisters, K. (2015). Magnesium in prevention and therapy. Nutrients, 7(9), 8199–8226. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095388

[xxviii] Schuette, S. A., Lashner, B. A., & Janghorbani, M. (1994). Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 18(5), 430–435. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607194018005430

[xxix] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Magnesium Health Sheet for Professionals. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/magnesium-healthprofessional/ 

[xxx] Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for magnesium - EFSA. (2015). https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4186

 

References

  1. de Baaij, J. H., Hoenderop, J. G., & Bindels, R. J. (2015). Magnesium in man: Implications for health and disease. Physiological Reviews, 95(1), 1–46. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00012.2014
  2. Fiorentini, D., Cappadone, C., Farruggia, G., & Prata, C. (2021). Magnesium: Biochemistry, nutrition, detection, and social impact of diseases linked to its deficiency. Nutrients, 13(4), 1136. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041136
  3. DiNicolantonio, J. J., O’Keefe, J. H., & Wilson, W. (2018). Subclinical magnesium deficiency: A principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis. Open Heart, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2017-000668
  4. Costello, R. B., Elin, R. J., Rosanoff, A., Wallace, T. C., Guerrero-Romero, F., Hruby, A., Lutsey, P. L., Nielsen, F. H., Rodriguez-Moran, M., Song, Y., & Van Horn, L. V. (2016). Perspective: The case for an evidence-based reference interval for serum magnesium: The time has come. Advances in Nutrition, 7(6), 977–993. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.116.012765
  5. van den Brink, W., van Bilsen, J., Salic, K., Hoevenaars, F. P., Verschuren, L., Kleemann, R., Bouwman, J., Ronnett, G. V., van Ommen, B., & Wopereis, S. (2019). Current and future nutritional strategies to modulate inflammatory dynamics in metabolic disorders. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00129
  6. Nielsen, F. H. (2018). Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: Current perspectives. Journal of Inflammation Research, Volume 11, 25–34. https://doi.org/10.2147/jir.s136742
  7. Veronese, N., Pizzol, D., Smith, L., Dominguez, L. J., & Barbagallo, M. (2022). Effect of magnesium supplementation on inflammatory parameters: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 14(3), 679. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030679
  8. Rosanoff, A., Costello, R. B., & Johnson, G. H. (2021). Effectively prescribing oral magnesium therapy for hypertension: A categorized systematic review of 49 clinical trials. Nutrients, 13(1), 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010195
  9. Günther, T. (2010). The biochemical function of mg2+ in insulin secretion, insulin signal transduction and insulin resistance. Magnesium Research, 23(1), 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1684/mrh.2009.0195
  10. Mooren, F. C. (2015). Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 17(9), 813–823. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12492
  11. Veronese, N., Demurtas, J., Pesolillo, G., Celotto, S., Barnini, T., Calusi, G., Caruso, M. G., Notarnicola, M., Reddavide, R., Stubbs, B., Solmi, M., Maggi, S., Vaona, A., Firth, J., Smith, L., Koyanagi, A., Dominguez, L., & Barbagallo, M. (2019). Magnesium and health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational and intervention studies. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(1), 263–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01905-w
  12. McClure, S. T., Schlechter, H., Oh, S., White, K., Wu, B., Pilla, S. J., Maruthur, N. M., Yeh, H.-C., Miller, E. R., & Appel, L. J. (2020). Dietary intake of adults with and without diabetes: Results from NHANES 2013–2016. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001681
  13. Zhao, B., Deng, H., Li, B., Chen, L., Zou, F., Hu, L., Wei, Y., & Zhang, W. (2019). Association of magnesium consumption with type 2 diabetes and glucose metabolism: A systematic review and pooled study with trial sequential analysis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 36(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3243
  14. Fang, X., Han, H., Li, M., Liang, C., Fan, Z., Aaseth, J., He, J., Montgomery, S., & Cao, Y. (2016). Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutrients, 8(11), 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110739
  15. Veronese, N., Dominguez, L. J., Pizzol, D., Demurtas, J., Smith, L., & Barbagallo, M. (2021). Oral magnesium supplementation for treating glucose metabolism parameters in people with or at risk of diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 13(11), 4074. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1216
  16. Castiglioni, S., Cazzaniga, A., Albisetti, W., & Maier, J. (2013). Magnesium and osteoporosis: Current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients, 5(8), 3022–3033. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5083022
  17. Groenendijk, I., van Delft, M., Versloot, P., van Loon, L. J. C., & de Groot, L. C. P. G. M. (2022). Impact of magnesium on bone health in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bone, 154, 116233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116233
  18. Aydın, H., Deyneli, O., Yavuz, D., Gözü, H., Mutlu, N., Kaygusuz, I., & Akalın, S. (2009). Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biological Trace Element Research, 133(2), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-009-8416-8
  19. Rogol, A. D. (2007). A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in Healthy Girls. Yearbook of Medicine, 2007, 554–555. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17018656/
  20. Maier, J. A., Pickering, G., Giacomoni, E., Cazzaniga, A., & Pellegrino, P. (2020). Headaches and magnesium: Mechanisms, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and potential advantage of magnesium pidolate. Nutrients, 12(9), 2660. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092660
  21. Dolati, S., Rikhtegar, R., Mehdizadeh, A., & Yousefi, M. (2019). The role of magnesium in pathophysiology and migraine treatment. Biological Trace Element Research, 196(2), 375–383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01931-z
  22. Fathizadeh, N., Ebrahimi, E., Valiani, M., Tavakoli, N., & Hojat Yar, M. (2010). Evaluating the effect of magnesium and magnesium plus vitamin B6 supplement on the severity of premenstrual syndrome. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. , 15, 401–405.
  23. Abbasi, B., Kimiagar, M., Kimiagar, K., & Sadeghniiat, K. (2012). The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci., 17, 1161–1161.
  24. Jones, S. F. (2012a). The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Yearbook of Pulmonary Disease, 2012, 207–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypdi.2012.01.037
  25. Gröber, U., Schmidt, J., & Kisters, K. (2015). Magnesium in prevention and therapy. Nutrients, 7(9), 8199–8226. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095388
  26. Schuette, S. A., Lashner, B. A., & Janghorbani, M. (1994). Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 18(5), 430–435. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607194018005430
  27. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Magnesium Health Sheet for Professionals. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/magnesium-healthprofessional/
  28. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for magnesium - EFSA. (2015). https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4186
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